Recipients of the Grants for Junior Researchers for RTI research
Here are the 9 researchers selected that received the Grant for Junior Researchers for RTI research. These awards were made possible utilizing the grant received from the Global Road Safety Facility of the World Bank. The scholarship recipients were:
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana
The relationship between road traffic crashes, flow, speed and road geometry on rural highways in Ghana
Ackaah Williams graduated with a BSc. in Civil Engineering in 2003 from the KwameNkrumah University of Science and Technology in Ghana. He is now an Assistant Research Scientist at the Building and Road Research Institute, Ghana. He also holds a Diploma in Road Traffic Safety from the Lund University, Sweden and is currently pursuing a post graduate program in Roads and Transportation Engineering. His research interest is in modeling road traffic crashes.
In Ghana, statistics indicate that, crashes in the non-urban environment account for about 70% of all road traffic fatalities. Whilst fatalities on roads in urban areas follow a gradual upward trend, that for the non urban areas follow a steep trend. The main object of this study is to develop a mathematical relationship between road traffic crashes and traffic variables on rural highways in Ghana; to examine the nature and risk factors associated with road crashes on rural highways and to identify measures to control them. The study will consider crash data for a three year period (2005-2007) on some selected highways in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The explanatory variables to be examined include vehicle speed, traffic volume, road characteristics and geometry. The report from the study will be submitted to all road safety stakeholders in Ghana for their necessary attention and action.
Aga Khan University, Pakistan
Commercial Driver Accident Research Survey
Umer received his undergraduate medical education from King Edward Medical College, Lahore. He is currently enrolled in the M.Sc Epidemiology and Biostatistics program at the Aga Khan University, Karachi. Prior to the admission at AKU, Umer worked in the departments of Pediatric medicine and Pediatric Neurosurgery in the Children’s Hospital, Lahore as an intern. His research interests are in childhood injuries and road traffic injuries.
No research related to RTIs has been carried out on the commercial drivers in Pakistan. This study is essential to investigate the RTI driver factors present in this population and to provide basic information essential for further RTI research. The objective of this study is to assess the driver related causes which may be contributing to the occurrence of RTIs involving commercial vehicles in Pakistan. The driving behavior of the drivers of these vehicles, the prevalence of work related fatigue and sleep disorders prevalence of other risk factors such as substance abuse, risky practices while driving will also be looked at. It will be a cross sectional survey conducted in Rawalpindi. Time location cluster sampling will be used to select 769 eligible subjects, commercial vehicle drivers, and pre tested questionnaires will be administered Subjects will be educated about the risk of RTI occurrence due to driver practices by the interviewers. Benefits are to be gained by both the participants and society as a whole.
Tam Minh Nguyen
Hue College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam
Driving after drinking in Vietnam: perceptions, risk and consequence
Tam holds a Medical Doctor Degree from Hue College of Medicine and Pharmacy and an MPH Degree from the University of Queensland, Australia. He is now Head of Department of Family Medicine of Hue College of Medicine and Pharmacy and a PhD student of Queensland University of Technology (Australia). Tam recently received first prize at the 14th National Youth Conference on Medicine and Pharmacy in Vietnam (2008).
Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of death and morbidity in Vietnam. While it is widely suspected that alcohol consumption is associated with traffic injury occurrence, little is known about the magnitude of the drinking and driving problem in Vietnam. The current study aims to identify the risk and consequences of traffic injuries after alcohol consumption in Vietnam and to explore what individual factors are associated with drink-driving behaviour. The research design combines a cross-sectional survey of 800 traffic related injured patients admitted to emergency department and a prospective study of cases. The cross-sectional study will identify the risk of traffic injuries after alcohol consumption by measuring proportion of patients who are positive with alcohol using a breathalyser. The prospective study will examine the consequences of traffic injuries in terms of injury severity, hospital course, and health outcomes at discharge amongst trauma patients with and without alcohol intoxication. This is the first study of its kind in Vietnam and it should provide evidence to policy makers, health authorities and the media to help raise community awareness about the magnitude of alcohol related traffic accidents in Vietnam. In addition, findings will contribute to international literature for better understanding of contemporary drink-drivers in South East Asia.
Ricardo Perez Nunez
National Institute of Public Health, Mexico
Economic impact of road traffic injuries in households living in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, during 2007-2008
Ricardo studied medicine at the Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico and completed his Master in Sciences degree in Health System research and analysis with honors at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico. He is working at the Health System Research Centre of the National Institute of Public Health where he is also working for his Doctorate in Public Health Sciences.
This study aims to estimate and analyze the economic cost associated with road traffic injuries (RTI) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico during 2007-2008. All people injured in RT in one month were surveyed just before discharge from emergency and hospitalization services in four different medical facilities during August-September 2007. Those who were hospitalized were followed up at eight weeks after discharged. With this information and administrative records of mortality and morbidity, the direct and indirect costs will be dimensioned from the household perspective. From a qualitative approximation using semi-structured individual interviews, the experience in terms of feelings and emotions, valuation of quality of life as well as the implications of direct and indirect cost for household of injured people and of relatives of deceased people due to RTI (intangible or non-monetary cost) will be documented from September to November 2008. Documenting the experience of people that live and suffer RTI in Mexican context will allow understanding this social phenomenon from a wider perspective that includes the intangible non-monetary cost.
University of Mar Del Plata, Argentina
Risky driving behaviors and driving style: their relation to alcohol drinking habits
Fernando graduated with honours in Psychology from the Facultad de Psicología from the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, and is currently undergoing his PhD training. He also works as an assistant teacher in a course at the Psychology College at the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata.
While acute alcohol consumption has been identify as a risk factor for road injuries, much less is known about the relationship between chronic consumption and accident involvement. Moreover, evidence regarding specific drinking patterns which may be related to risky driving behaviour is scarce and unclear. Similarly, results about the relationship between alcohol drinking habits and some specific drivers’ behaviour like seat-belt use and speeding have been contradictory and culturally dependent. The aim of this project will be to assess the association between drinking patterns, particular driving styles and speeding, seat-belt use and driving under the influence of alcohol. A sample of nearly 1000 participants will be recruited from the general adult population and assessed. Drinking patterns will be created by classifying participants according to frequency, volume and beverage choice. Identifying groups of drivers who perform risky behaviors and tend to be involved in traffic accidents will assist decision and policy makers regarding allocation of resources and prevention efforts.
Jorge Martin Rodriguez
National Institute of Public Health, Mexico
A proposal for improving pedestrian safety and reducing risk of pedestrian injuries in Cuernavaca, Mexico during 2009
Jorge got his degree in Medicine in 1994 from the National University in Bogotá Colombia and in 2002 completed his Master in Epidemiology. Since 2006, Jorge has been working as a doctoral student at the National Public Health Institute in Mexico where he is closely linked to the International Research Center for the Study and Prevention of Injuries. His research interests are related to intentional (violence) and unintentional (traffic accidents) injuries.
Jorge’s study seeks to implement and evaluate an intervention to reduce pedestrian injuries in Cuernavaca during 2009. This community intervention trial will compare the study site, chosen randomly, to a control site. Baseline data will be collected in both sites to obtain information about pedestrian’s characteristics, behaviors, volume of cars by day, time of the day, safe signals and environmental characteristics. The intervention will consist of physical environmental changes to improve pedestrian safety (e.g. signals besides roads, speed reducers, caps, violets, traffic lights for pedestrians and demarcated level crossings, among others). Evaluation will be done at six months and one year after the implementation. The impact measures studied will be: decrease in pedestrian mortality, decrease in severity of pedestrian injuries and decrease in events of pedestrian injuries at the study site.
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Capacity building of drivers employed in the University of Ibadan on provision of first aid for accident victims
Adesola is a Consultant Public Health Physician and a Medical Research Fellow at the Institute of Child Health, University of Ibadan. Her research interests are in non-communicable (injury and substance abuse prevention) and communicable disease (HIV/AIDS) epidemiology in vulnerable and disparate populations. She received the Oladele Ajose Prize at the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria (Faculty of Public Health) in 2003. She is currently conducting research on work-related road safety practices in formal establishments in Ibadan.
In Nigeria, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are not yet readily available. By virtue of their profession, drivers are likely to be on-site at a crash scene and can better provide assistance to accident victims after undergoing first aid training. This study aims to provide first aid training for drivers employed by the University of Ibadan in order to improve their capacity to provide first aid for accident victims. A before-and–after study with a control group will be conducted among all consenting drivers over a period of 1 year. Repeated measures of selected outcomes – road safety knowledge, and first aid knowledge and skills will be conducted immediately after the training and 3-months after the training. The proportion of drivers who report coming across a road crash and who utilize the first aid skills learnt will be assessed in the 3-month and 6-month periods following the training. The study findings will be communicated to the University authorities, road safety authorities and government to advocate for workplace policies mandating employers of drivers to include first aid training as part of their induction activities and also to conduct these training periodically.
Trinh Tu Anh
Vietnam Aviation Academy, Vietnam
Building probability model to identify black spots in Vietnam – A case study: Binh Thanh district, Hochiminh city, Vietnam
Tu Anh is a lecturer in the Faculty of Transport, Vietnam Aviation Academy, Hochiminh city, Vietnam. She graduated with a Master of Engineering from the Asian Institute of Technology and is now a Phd student in the Hasselt University of Belgium with a major in traffic safety. Her research interests are based in transportation with a focus on traffic safety.
Traffic accidents have become a leading cause of accidental death in Viet Nam today, especially in Hochiminh city. It is revealing that the number of accidents was not distributed throughout a whole road network but focuses on specific points of the network which may be called black spots. The research aims to develop and to apply a probability method for identifying these black spots. The probability model will be built on the basis of a case study in Binh Thanh district, which has a very high accident case ratio and contains different kind of roads and intersections. Data on number, type, time and location of traffic accidents will be collected in Binh Thanh district area from the Police Office, hospitals and the Traffic Safety Organization. The research results will build an appropriate probability model to forecast black spots at each kind of road and intersection of the Binh Thanh district area and it will be helpful for local government and relative authorities to reduce traffic accidents in the future.
Shantou University, China
Intervention Research of Bicycle injury of Adolescents in Chaoshan Region
Yanru completed her Bachelor Degree (Public Health) with honors from Guangdong Pharmaceutical University’s School of Pubic Health, China in 2007, when she won the first prize for best student. Now she is a postgraduate student of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics in Shantou University Medical College, China. Her research focus is on road safety, especially in the area of prevention of RTI in children and adolescents. In 2008, Yanru won the top prize for academic excellence in Shantou University Medical College.
The objective of this research is to identify the most effective intervention to prevent bicycle injuries of adolescents in the Chaoshan region of China. This proposal adds to an existing study, which is a collaborative project between Oxford University and Chinese University in Hong Kong (CUHK), funded by the Li Ka Shing Foundation. The study population includes approximately 2,000 Year 2 students from 20 middle schools who travel to school by bicycle. The study will determine appropriate interventions by conducting a survey to identify children with prior bicycle injuries using qualitative and quantitative methods. Multi-level assessments, including focus groups, will be used to collect feedback from the children and their parents, as well as from schools and local health departments. The study expects to improve the knowledge of the students, parents, and school leaders, as well as offer scientific data to help make transportation laws.
The network received many outstanding proposals from highly qualified applicants and would like to thank all those who applied. For more information on the RTIRN Grants for Junior Researchers, please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org